原标题:【国际】泰国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外费用

本期原著选自The Economist 2017-02-二伍的文章Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自伊利诺伊香槟分校高阶柒版、有道词典等财富。如若您也在上学The
Economist,欢迎订阅小编的文集The
Economist,1起学学交换。

翻译按:任何三个行当的变革都会碰到既有势力的阻碍。读完本文,你将了然到清洁财富为什么不可能立刻取代旧能源的多个原因,以及也许的消除方案——政坛的参预和调剂。
本文译自《军事学人》6月2十二日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰民有公司业主起草的新法规要求向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外成本。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

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Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经音讯澳国评论》电视发表,泰王国发电局(EGAT)务求开发那笔支出作为区块链技术带来的地下影响的补贴。

【一】renewables 可再生财富

管文学人封面

至今,类似于图中的西藏武高校同的大花头熊形状的太阳能发电项目曾经很常见了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池微风涡轮机发明大概150年后,他们照旧只发生世界七%的电力。可是,1些值得注意的业务正在发生。十几年前还处于财富类其余外围,它们以往的增速超越别的此外能源,它们下跌的老本使其和化石燃料1样有竞争力
BP,一家石油公司,推测可再生财富将占现在20年满世界财富供应拉长的百分之五10。世界正在进入一个干干净净,Infiniti和廉价电力的暂时不再是可疑的。也是光阴难题。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)不过,有二个20万亿欧元的小问题。从明日到现在内需在以后几10年大批量的投资,以代替旧的喷出混合雾的发电站和升级换代给消费者带来电的电缆塔和电缆。常常投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供可信的报恩。不过,铅白能源有三个龌龊的私人住房。它配备得越多,它就会让来自别的来自的电力价格回落越来越多。那使得通向无碳的前程的对接难以控制,在那里面,若是要让灯继续发光的话,许多发电技术,无论清洁照旧污染,须求保证盈利。除非市场是一定的,不然对行业的津贴只会升高。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是壹部关于天气变化和海内外变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的真相》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

叁)政策制定者已经把这么些尴尬的真相看作停止可再生财富的二个缘由。在亚洲和中夏族民共和国的一些地域,可再生财富的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。然则,解决方案不是越来越少的风和太阳能。而是重新思量世界什么为清洁财富定价,以便越来越好地选用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    四)其主干难点是,政坛扶助的可再生财富已经被强加到一个不等时代设计出的市镇。在20世纪的大部时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的占据公司制作和平运动送的。从20世纪80年份开端,在那之中许多占据被打破,被私有化和可行性,使市镇力量能够控制最好投资方向。明天唯有约陆%的电力用户从垄断公司获取他们的电力。可是,随地去碳电力供应的下压力壹度使得国家背后潜回【美高梅集团网站】泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费,清洁能源的水污染秘密。市镇。那是破坏性的,有三个原因。第3是补贴制度自己。其余三个是风和阳光的性质固有的:它们的间歇性和它们非常的低的运行开销。那四个原因帮助分解了为什么电力价格低和公共补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

伍)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自二零零六年的话约为捌仟亿欧元,扭曲了市集。它是出于高尚的理由——为了对抗天气变化和勉励升高新的、昂贵的技艺,包蕴风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。可是,由于能源效能的缕缕增高和金融风险的影响,富裕国家的电力消耗抱残守缺,补贴就在那时候出现。结果造成过量的发电能力,小幅削减了电力服务公司从常见电力集镇取得的收入,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

陆)其次,北京蓝电源断断续续。风和日光的浮动莫测——
特别是在未有合适天气的国度——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在局地日子致电。为了保持电力流动,系统依靠常规的电站,例如煤、石脑油或核能,在可再生财富减弱起到效用。然而因为他俩长久处在空闲状态,他们发觉很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了保全灯亮着,他们须求公共基金。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    柒)各类人都饱受第几个因素的影响:可再生财富具有可忽略的依然是零分界运转资本——因为风和日光是免费的。在七个赞成于以压低短时间资金生生产能力源的市镇中,风能和太阳能从运营开支更高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)那里拿走生意,下落电价,从而下跌了全体人的进项。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

8)可再生财富的渗透率越高,那个题材越严重——越发是在饱和市集。在首先感受到影响的澳大昆明(Australia),电力服务公司深受了低收入降低、资产搁浅和店铺瓦解的“失去的十年”。二零一八年,德意志两大电力供应商E.ON和路虎极光WE两家都分拆成两家。在美利坚联邦合众国可再生财富充分的地区,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有多量风力的地点,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有事情可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被另行调整,因为投资关键去往受益于公私支撑的园地。争辨的是,那表示援救可再生能源的国度越多,他们为健康发电厂支付的也越多,来行使“体积支付”来缓解间歇性。实际上,外交家而不是市面再次决定怎么样制止停电。他们不时犯错误:德意志对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排泄量回涨,就算其对可再生能源提供巨大补贴。未有1种新的章程,可再生财富革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out美高梅集团网站 ,: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好新闻是,新技巧能够帮助缓解那几个标题。数字化,智能电衡量提醒仪表和电池使公司和家中能够解决她们的必要——例如在夜间做一些能源密集型的做事。那有助于应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发电站,简单灵活调节生产能力,变得越发受欢迎,高压电力网也得以更管用地在网络上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1一)越来越大的任务是再一次规划电力市场,以反映对灵活供应和需要的新必要。他们理应更频仍地调动价格,以反映气候的波动。在无比稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起功用来堵住停电。市场应该奖励愿意利用越来越少的电力的人来平衡电力网,正如他们奖励那多少个产生越来越多电力的人。账单能够被组织变为越来越高或更低,那取决于客户多么强烈地期望一贯保障电力供应——有点像保单。不言而喻,政策制定者应该明了,他们有标题,原因不是可再生财富,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们相应化解它。

初稿出处:文学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于别的商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由自个儿承担。本人同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的通知后,删除小说。

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家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数额正在迅猛增多。那便是财富禁锢理委员会员会(EEnclaveC)须求制定对各样人都公平拘押的来由。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

更进一步多的泰王国公司运用分布式账本技术(DLT)援救房主从屋顶太阳能系统中挣钱。新一代区块链消费者通过在分流的点对点(p2p)财富市镇上购买销售剩余的太阳能电力财富,导致该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

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二零一六年,中华夏族民共和国担负了多于百分之四十的大地可再生财富,依据1项新的读书展现,那是一项举世褐色能源合成物的记录。

换句话说,随着市场层面的恢宏,直接从国营公用事业集团购进的电力减弱,那代表古板电力行业的纯利润收缩。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还屏弃了对非政党太阳能发电的严加限定。据《迈阿密邮报》报导,泰王国政坛同意家庭和商行2018年八月将太阳电池板发生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但或者当年并未料到p二p财富社区会这么急速地运用区块链技术吧。

【3】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际能源代理中央(IEA),一家在开设在时尚之都的咨询集团,发现可再生产资料源占新财富的2/四。有史以来第贰次,太阳能合成物发展的比包含煤炭在内的别的燃料快。

英文原稿

【四】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【5】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

二零一八年,全球太阳能体量增进了一半,在中原负责了附近的八分之四的能量增进的意况下达到并当先7四千兆瓦。同时中华夏族民共和国也是天底下用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市场的长官。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【陆】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

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IEA的推行总管Fatih
Birol预计在202二年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够坚实拾亿Watt,也许未来整个世界用煤量的二分一。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“我们正在见证叁个新太阳能电板时代的降生,“
Birol说,”大家预测在202二年,太阳能光板的能量会比此外任何可再生产资料源技术提升的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

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In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的报告中,中华人民共和国被认为是世界上“毫无疑问的可再生能源的管理者“,在对环境污染和能量指标的焦虑下,可再生产资料源的付出被标明在中华第一三个伍年安插中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告诉中还说中华象征了全世界太阳能板的需要量,中华夏族民共和国创设了全世界百分之60左右的太阳能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

主要编辑:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA建议,由于市镇的体量,中国政策的腾飞会对全球的太阳能须要,供应和价格发生潜移默化。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

报告中证明了中华的可再生财富的津贴和互联网集成的标价不断提升,会对前景的上进有潜在阻碍,并觉得中夏族民共和国对可再生能源的政策应当依照这些阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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华夏从停放电价项目提升到有铁红证书的定额分配制。IEA认为这一个新的方针加上能量市镇的重新整理,新的电讯传输线,和分布式发电的增多会加紧太阳能能源的遍布。

【12】creep in/into sth 初步发出(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在当局政策消除发展阻碍的景况下,IEA分析发今后202二年,中夏族民共和国指点的全世界可再生能源的体积会在大增十分之三也正是1,150千瓦。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从整个世界的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的回落,对提高新的可再生财富容积做出了孝敬。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【14】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,英帝国政坛进行了风力场的竞价会,两家店铺同意成立每时辰产生5七.50日元(约合7陆美元)的百万Watt的设施。那一个价位已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的二分一。意味着在大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国,海上风力发电第贰遍比原子能发电要有利于。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【1伍】solar panel太阳电池板

United Kingdom和中华的商量人士近年来公告了多少个新类型去商讨“下三个一代“的风能和波浪能的科学技术。

【1陆】hit爆发不良影响,危机

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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United Kingdom的当然能源探究委员会和工程及自然科委会在未来三年会为那一个项目出资4百万台币。中中原人民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会出资。

【一柒】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【18】vagaries阪上走丸

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【1玖】kick in起首生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【二1】marginal
costs【会计学】边际费用(指因小额变动而致使总资金的对应改变)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【二三】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【二4】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,音信封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【二陆】smart meter智能电衡量提示仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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